Reference Model is a normalized model that provides a high‐level integrated view of a business, its technology, and its data; it is used as a reference for building similar models. Reference models are useful in providing a degree of standardization among elements of a discipline. A well‐known reference model is the supply‐chain operations reference (SCOR), which allows for describing supply chains using common terminology and relationships to aid in comparisons and diagnostics.
Another popular industry reference model is the eTOM or Enhanced Telecom Operations Map published by the TM Forum. The eTOM model describes the full scope of business processes required by a telecom company and defines key organizational and business process elements and how they interact. eTOM is often associated with ITIL, a standard framework for best practices in information technology. Many consulting organizations also offer business process reference models for specific industries.